### Sous-vide cooking

#### Overview of this Week's Science

###### Below are some of the examples of the transformations caused by heat:
• Heat causes fats to melt; the melting temperature is higher for longer, more saturated fatty acid chains.

• Heat causes proteins to unravel, in a process called denaturation.

• Heat causes starches to unravel, a process that chefs called gelation (but we won’t, since it has another meaning in physics).

#### Equation of the Week

###### How much energy must be used to raise the temperature of the food by a given amount?
• Specific heat, cp defines the energy required to raise the temperature of a material with a mass, m, by a specific amount, ΔT:

$$U = m c_p \Delta T$$

If a drink with a mass of g and a specific heat of J/(kg K) decreases in temperature by °C, then J of energy must be absorbed by the whiskey rocks.